Earth Science is also known as Geoscience. It includes all the fields of natural science and every phenomenon related to Earth. The physical constitution of the Earth and its atmosphere is what this discipline of science deals with. The physical characteristics of the Earth-like earthquakes, raindrops, the existence of the planets, mineral resources, etc. are all dealt with this subject.
This science also has a number of sub-sciences known as- atmospheric sciences, meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, hydrology, oceanography, geodesy, geophysics, geology, mineralogy, glaciology, volcanology, astronomy, etc.
There are two types of courses that can be done on the subject of Earth Science. Let us discuss that in the next section.
TYPES OF COURSES
An Earth Science or Geoscience degree can be attained in two ways. And they are:
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Geology
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Geology is an undergraduate course for Science stream students for 3-years. This course encompasses the study of solid Earth, rocks, other solid structures, minerals, physical and chemical properties, water resources and the processes and reactions by which their state and properties change. The science of geology does not only limit itself to the study of Earth but also comprises the study of solid surface, structures and properties of celestial bodies.
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Geography
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Geography is an undergraduate course for students who are interested in studying land features, inhabitants, land distribution and other related phenomena of the planet. This is a 3-year course and the entire course is divided into 6 semesters.
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Oceanography
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Oceanography is a course offered for students who aspire to learn on oceanic systems. This course encompasses oceanography, ocean circulation systems, marine organisms, deep-sea exploration, ocean climates, ocean conservation and current issues in oceanography. This course is a research-based program and comprises both classroom-based study and laboratory work.
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Environmental Science
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Environmental Science is a 3-year undergraduate course which combines aspects of Biology, Ecology, Geography, Chemistry, Technology, and Social Science. This course is divided into six semesters, with each semester lasting for a period of six months. The course was designed to meet the growing demand for skilled personnel in the fields of ecology, environment, conservation.
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Water Management
Bachelor of Science in Water Management is an undergraduate course of 3 years that focuses on the treatment of drinking water, industrial water, sewage and wastewater, flood protection and the water table. There are various strategies to manage the water resources as to where to allocate the water resources.
Master of Technology/ Master of Engineering (M.Tech/M.E.) Remote Sensing
MTech. in Remote sensing is a postgraduate course under Civil engineering. This is a 2-year program. The students should pass B.E or B. Tech in the relevant course. Remote sensing is the art and science of measuring the Earth using aircraft or satellite detectors. Such sensors capture image data and provide advanced capabilities to track, interpret and display images. Remote sensed imagery is integrated within a GIS.
Master of Technology/ Master of Engineering (M.Tech/M.E.) Atmospheric Science
M.Tech in Atmospheric Science is a 2-year post-graduate course in meteorology. Aspiring students can pursue this course after B.E or B. Tech and learn about the atmosphere and its related system. This course can be termed as modern education given to the students on the major components of the earth and its physical and chemical activities.
Master of Arts (MA) Geography
M.A in Geography is a 2-year postgraduate course in earth sciences that involves the comprehensive scientific study of the earth's surface, structure, and composition. This course covers elements of related topics such as Human Geography, which is the science of how the world and space were created and how they were contested.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Geography
M.Sc. in Geography is a 2-year post-graduate program which encompasses a comprehensive study on planet Earth such as land, environment, and population of a society. This course prepares students for a career where students will be taught to work closely with social, economic, and environmental issues.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Oceanography
M.Sc in Oceanography is the study of oceanography is a 2-year full-time postgraduate program. The students who have completed their under graduation is eligible to pursue the course. They should have a degree in Physics, Earth Science, Microbiology, Applied Science, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Agriculture and Fishery Science as the main subjects.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Marine Biology Science
M.Sc. Marine Biology Science is a 2-year postgraduate program dedicated to ocean research and its biological forms. The study of all living organisms in oceans is primarily concerned with marine biology. Interested students should have Biology as the most important subject in their graduation. Chemistry, Maths, Geography, Computing or Psychology can also be useful subjects.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Cartography
M.Sc. in Cartography refers to drawing maps scientifically, and those seeking to pursue their career in this field may expect to receive training in the art of organizing, managing, and coordinating geographic and cartographic projects. This is a 2-year program where students learn skills to analyse, prepare and produce maps and charts of geographical areas, including oceans and landmasses.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Atmospheric Science
M.Sc. in Atmospheric Science is a 2-year postgraduate program for students who aspire to pursue their career as an atmospheric science specialist or others. Aerosol physics, meteorology, biogeochemical cycles, geophysics, remote sensing and atmospheric chemistry and analysis are some of the courses that are engulfed in this course.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Climatic Science and Policy
M.Sc. in Climatic Science and Policy is a postgraduate programme for students who have completed their B.Sc. under any reputed university. This course focuses on agricultural and ecosystems and dimensions of climate change.
Master of Science (M.Sc.). In Agricultural Meteorology
M.Sc. In Agricultural Meteorology is a 2-year postgraduate program for aspiring students who want to pursue their career as Agro-meteorology experts. These graduates are hired by some of the renowned government and private organizations across the country in departments of Agriculture Meteorology, Weather Forecasting, Aviation Meteorology, Civil Services.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Space Sciences
M.Sc in Space Sciences is a multidisciplinary field that incorporates nearly all areas of outer space. This includes exploration of the origin of the universe, space travel technologies, astrophysics, planetology, satellite communication, and others. It is important to note that the one area this does not include is actually travelling to space, but astronauts often begin in this field because a very strong understanding of all these topics is vital before more rigorous training is started.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Hydrology
Master of Science in Hydrology is a postgraduate Bioscience course. Hydrology is an earth science that studies about the natural distribution of water in time and space and evaluates the impact of man-made changes on the distribution and quality of water. This course is conducted for 2 years where it teaches students to understand the human influences on the hydrological system and receive the tool, such as modelling.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Mineral Exploration and Processing
Master of Science in Mineral Exploration and Processing is a postgraduate course for 2 years that studies the discovery and acquisition of new mineral deposit amenable to economic extractive operations now in future. The objective is to find and acquire a maximum number of economic mineral deposits at a minimum cost and within minimum time.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Environmental Science
Master of Science in Environmental Science is a postgraduate course of 2 years where the interdisciplinary projects covering ecology, geology, chemistry, environmental education and law. Students can advance and master skills to meet the growing global growth of scientists with deep environmental grounds.
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Geoinformatics
Master of Science in Geoinformatics is a 2-year postgraduate course that aims to provide conceptual knowledge in GIS, remote sensing and related fields, information technology and hands-on training in GIS, data interpretation, digital image processing, digital photogrammetry, digital cartography and GPS.
|Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Geology||Passing 10+2 from a recognized board with 50% marks in Physics, Chemistry, Maths and biology|
|Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Geography||Passing 10+2 from a recognized board with an aggregate 50% marks|
|Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Oceanography||Passing 10+2 from a recognized board with Physics, Chemistry and Maths and also an aggregate 50% marks|
|Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Environmental Science||Passing 10+2 from a recognized board with Physics, Chemistry and Biology and also an aggregate 50% marks|
|Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Water Management||Passing 10+2 from a recognized board with an aggregate 60% marks|
|Master of Technology/ Master of Engineering (M.Tech/M.E.) Remote Sensing||Passing B.E/B.tech in any branch of Engineering or B.Arch with 60% marks from a recognized university|
|Master of Technology/ Master of Engineering (M.Tech/M.E.) Atmospheric Science||Passing B.E/B.tech in any branch of Engineering with 60% marks from a recognized university|
|Master of Arts (MA) Geography||Passing B.A in Geography from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Geography||Passing B.A/B.Sc in Geography from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Oceanography||Passing B.Sc with Physics, Chemistry, Applied Science, Zoology, Agriculture or Fishery Science with an aggregate 50% marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Remote Sensing||Passing Graduation in Science/BCA, Engineering, Agriculture, Forestry or BA in Geography from a recognized university|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Marine Biology||Passing B.Sc Chemistry and Hons. in Zoology, Botany, Geology, Geography, Microbiology and Chemistry as one of the General (Pass) subjects|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Cartography||Passing B.Sc degree from a recognized university with minimum 55% marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Atmospheric Science||Passing B.Sc/B.E/B.Tech from a recognized university with 50% marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Climatology||Passing B.Sc with Physics, Chemistry or Mathematics from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Meteorology||Passing B.Sc with Physics, Chemistry or Mathematics from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Space Sciences||Passing B.Sc degree from a recognized university with minimum 50% marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Hydrology||Passing B.Sc in Chemistry from a recognized university with 50% aggregate marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Mineral Exploration and Processing||Passing 1st in Geology with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biological Science as subsidiaries from a recognized university with an aggregate of 60% marks|
|Master of Science (M.Sc.) Geoinformatics||Graduate in Engineering, IT, Computer Science, Science, Agriculture, Management, Geography & Commerce from a recognized university with an aggregate of 50% marks|
Placement And Career
Placement plays a major role during the course of higher studies. It is these placement campuses that students wait for during the journey of their course studies. Top companies and recruiters and companies come to hire excellent ones. And these help mostly before the completion of their tenure.
Following are the career options for a student who has completed Earth Science:
Agronomists and more
Some of the top recruiters that come in placements for students of Earth Science are:
JP Morgan and many more
Listed below are some of the career opportunities that a student of Earth Science can choose from:
Environmental Scientist: These scientists are concerned with the safety of the environment. They focus on mainly how the earth can be preserved and protected from hazardous environmental projects.
Biologist: Biologists are responsible to work with the wildlife, marine life and vegetation. They contribute to a total of 13.7% of all Earth Science careers.
Geologist: They work with the bedrocks and surface rocks. They also analyse the reasons for the change in landforms and rocks with time.
Geotechnical Engineers: These set of engineers are responsible to analyse, research and interpret the subsurface conditions through soil samples and rock samples.
Soil Scientist: They study about the soil as a natural resource which includes soil formation factors, classification, physical, chemical and fertility properties.
Agronomist: These scientists find new and safe ways and technologies to carry out crop production. Some also specialise in improving safety and agricultural products.
Meteorologist: They are the best when it comes to weather forecasting and warnings in times of severe weather conditions. They have an understanding of atmospheric chemistry and physics, after which they relate it to weather and climate patterns.
Given the recent focus on environmental issues such as global warming and deforestation, there is a huge demand for professionals who can work with various inter-governmental agencies and NGOs. As a result, graduates of Earth Sciences courses can expect a booming career for years to come
Some areas of Earth Sciences involve working in different geographical locations such as geologists and climatology. Professionals in such fields can expect to travel extensively across the globe.
With various statutory regulations imposed on many industry verticals such as Energy, Chemical and Petroleum Products, and Mining, these companies are increasingly looking to Earth Sciences professionals to help them with compliance and other issues. So Earth Sciences is one of the up and coming career options in the private sector.
Research options are plenty with generous funds from organisations such as the United Nations and other private research foundations. Research is mainly targeted at finding indigenous solutions to the ever-growing environmental issues. Marine Biology, Climatology, and Water Management are some of the fields that carry out extensive research
Some of the fields in Earth Sciences are interdisciplinary to a large extent. Climatologists, for example, have thorough knowledge about the local geography and its impact on climate in addition to ocean currents and other global factors.